Chemical Composition Of Coal

Chemical Composition Of Coal

  • Coal - Wikipedia

    OverviewChemistryEtymologyGeologyHistoryEmission intensityCoal as fuel to generate electricityCoal industry

    The composition of coal is reported either as a proximate analysis (moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash) or an ultimate analysis (ash, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur). The "volatile matter" does not exist by itself (except for some adsorbed methane) but designates the volatile compounds that are produced and driven off by heating the coal. A typical bituminous coal may have an ultimate analysis on a dry, ash-free basis of 84.4% carbon, 5.4% hydrogen, 6.7% oxygen, 1.7% nitrogen, and 1.8% sulfur, on a weight basis.

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    The composition of coal is reported either as a proximate analysis (moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash) or an ultimate analysis (ash, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur). The "volatile matter" does not exist by itself (except for some adsorbed methane) but designates the volatile compounds that are produced and driven off by heating the coal. A typical bituminous coal may have an ultimate analysis on a dry, ash-free basis of 84.4% carbon, 5.4% hydrogen, 6.7% oxygen, 1.7% nitrogen, and 1.8% sulfur, on a weight basis. The composition of ash, given in terms of oxides, varies: Other minor components include: Coke is a solid carbonaceous residue derived from coking coal (a low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal, also known as metallurgical coal), which is used in manufacturing steel and other iron products. Coke is made from coking coal by baking in an oven without oxygen at temperatures as high as 1,000 °C, driving off the volatile constituents and fusing together the fixed carbon and residual ash. Metallurgical coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. The carbon monoxide produced by its combustion reduces hematite (an iron oxide) to iron. Waste carbon dioxide is also produced () together with pig iron, which is too rich in dissolved carbon so must be treated further to make steel. Coking coal should be low in ash, sulfur, and phosphorus, so that these do not migrate to the metal. The coke must be strong enoughto resist the weight of overburden in the blast furnace, which is why coking coal is so important in making steel using the conventional route. Coke from coal is grey, hard, and porous and has a heating value of 29.6 MJ/kg. Some cokemaking processes produce byproducts, inclu

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  • Coal - Chemistry Encyclopedia - structure, water, uses ...

    Origin, Composition, and Structure of CoalEnvironmental ConcernsConclusionGeologists believe that underground coal deposits formed about 250–300 million years ago, when much of Earth was swamp covered with thick forest and plant growth. As the plants and trees died, they sank under Earth's wet surface, where insufficient oxygen slowed their decay and led to the formation of peat. New forests and plant life replaced the dead vegetation, and when the new forests and plants died, they also sank into the See more on chemistryexplained
  • Coal Composition - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

    Coal consists of a variety of substances with different chemical structures. The coal composition depends on the plant-based origin of the raw material and the coalification process. Hence, lignite can have variety of different properties.

  • What are the chemical mineral composition (including ...

    Coal is defined as a readily combustible rock containing more than 50% by weight of carbon. Coals other constituents include hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, ash, and sulfur. Some of the undesirable chemical constituents include chorine and sodium.

  • Coal - Origins Of Coal, Composition Of Coal, Properties ...

    Coal is a naturally occurring combustible material consisting primarily of the element carbon, but with low percentages of solid, liquid, and gaseous hydrocarbons and other materials, such as compounds of nitrogen and sulfur. Coal is usually classified into the sub-groups known as anthracite, bituminous, lignite, and peat.

  • Coal - Structure and properties of coal Britannica

    The plant material from which coal is derived is composed of a complex mixture of organic compounds, including cellulose, lignin, fats, waxes, and tannins.

  • OKD Coal composition

    Coal composition Coal is a mineral in which the chemical element of carbon is prevalent. Carbon content (the so-called coalification) depends foremost on the time during which the conversion from plant matter to the final mineral took place.

  • The Chemical Composition of Coal and Its Negative Impact ...

    2008-05-27  Inter-layered with other sedimentary rocks,Coal varies widely in its composition. It is composed chiefly of rings of six carbon atoms joined together in an extremely complex composition of layered arrangements that have in them, not only hydrogen but significant amounts of

  • Chapter 7 COAL - Pennsylvania State University

    The chemical approach to characterizing coals is to determine the amounts of the principal chemical elements in them. In the jargon of the coal business, this procedure is called the ultimate analysis of coal. Carbon and hydrogen are the principal combustible elements in coal. On a weight basis, carbon is the predominant one.

  • Chemical Analyses and Physical Properties of 12 Coal ...

    Average abundance of chemical elements and oxides in 12 whole coal and ash samples from Virginia and West Virginia compared with 331 Appalachian region and 509 bituminous coal samples_____ 18 6. Major-, minor-, and trace-element composition of 12 coal samples from Virginia and West Virginia on a whole-coal basis_____ 20 7. Arithmetic mean, observed range, geometric mean, and geometric ...

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  • Chapter 7 COAL - Pennsylvania State University

    The chemical approach to characterizing coals is to determine the amounts of the principal chemical elements in them. In the jargon of the coal business, this procedure is called the ultimate analysis of coal. Carbon and hydrogen are the principal combustible elements in coal. On a weight basis, carbon is the predominant one.

  • Physical, chemical, and geotechnical properties of coal ...

    2019-12-01  In general, the specific gravity of coal ashes lies around 2.0 but varies to a large extent, from 1.6-3.1. This variation is due to a combination of several factors such as particle shape, gradation, and chemical composition [ 18 ]. Based on the grain size distribution fly

  • OKD Coal composition

    Coal composition Coal is a mineral in which the chemical element of carbon is prevalent. Carbon content (the so-called coalification) depends foremost on the time during which the conversion from plant matter to the final mineral took place.

  • Coal - Composition Of Coal - Carbon, Heat, Bituminous, and ...

    Composition Of Coal Coal is classified according to its heating value and according to its relative content of elemental carbon. For example, anthracite contains the highest proportion of pure carbon (about 86%-98%) and has the highest heat value—13,500–15,600 Btu/lb (British thermal units per pound)—of all

  • On the Chemical Composition of Thermally Treated Coal-Tar ...

    The aim of this work is to study the changes in the chemical composition of a commercial impregnating coal-tar pitch due to the thermal treatment, using whole samples and the corresponding single isotropic phases and mesophases separated by hot filtration. A deeper knowledge of the molecular size and structure of the components present in the samples was achieved by means of size exclusion ...

  • chemical compositon of coal - lakeviewlodge.co.za

    Chemical composition of the coal is defined in terms of its proximate and ultimate (elemental) analyses. The parameters of proximate analysis are moisture, volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon. Elemental or ultimate analysis encompasses the quantitative determination of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen within the coal.

  • Coal gas chemical compound Britannica

    Coal gas, gaseous mixture—mainly hydrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide—formed by the destructive distillation (i.e., heating in the absence of air) of bituminous coal and used as a fuel. Sometimes steam is added to react with the hot coke, thus increasing the yield of gas. Coal tar and coke (qq.v.) are obtained as by-products.

  • What is the chemical formulae of coal? - Quora

    Coal is in the form of hard rock. It mostly contains Carbon, but it also has Hydrogen, Sulphur, Oxygen and Nitrogen though the composition is less. It is a non-renewable resource of energy which can deplete with the extensive use. It takes millions of years to form.

  • Report 2 Analysis of Coal Composition Ecotoxicity and ...

    Based on the overall composition of coal, it can be concluded that the most critical fractions of coal that may be of concern for the aquatic environment are inorganic trace elements and organic aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Both groups of substances are further discussed in more detail. 1.2.

  • Fly ash - Wikipedia

    The minor constituents of fly ash depend upon the specific coal bed composition but may include one or more of the following elements or compounds found in trace concentrations (up to hundreds ppm): arsenic, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium, along with very small concentrations of

  • On the Chemical Composition of Thermally Treated Coal-Tar ...

    The aim of this work is to study the changes in the chemical composition of a commercial impregnating coal-tar pitch due to the thermal treatment, using whole samples and the corresponding single isotropic phases and mesophases separated by hot filtration. A deeper knowledge of the molecular size and structure of the components present in the samples was achieved by means of size exclusion ...

  • chemical compositon of coal - lakeviewlodge.co.za

    Chemical composition of the coal is defined in terms of its proximate and ultimate (elemental) analyses. The parameters of proximate analysis are moisture, volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon. Elemental or ultimate analysis encompasses the quantitative determination of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen within the coal.

  • The science of what makes coal so dirty — Quartz

    2019-10-23  Instead, coal’s smoke contains unburned or half-burned particles of carbon, sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxides, and lots of complex organic molecules formed in

  • The Chemical Composition of a Coal-Tar Pitch: Polycyclic ...

    A coal-tar pitch has been analyzed by a variety of spectroscopic methods. The whole pitch was studied by elemental analysis, IR, 13 C and 1 H NMR as well as soft ionization MS techniques. The complex nature of the pitch was apparent from the MS studies and the “average” structure indicates that the pitch consists predominately of large highly condensed aromatic units with only about 10% of ...

  • Chemical composition of coal surface as derived from micro ...

    In this study, in-situ image analysis, contact angle measurements, micro-FTIR spectroscopy and SEM are used to obtain information on the surface composition of coal. The heterogeneous coal surface is investigated with regard to the distribution of the chemical functional groups and its effect on hydrophobicity as derived from contact angle measurements. Contact angles obtained from sessile ...

  • Chemical Properties and Petrographic Composition of Coal ...

    The Danville coal (about 150 cm thick) is a clarain-type coal without distinct changes in lithotype composition. Average sulfur content is 0.66 percent and is highest in the uppermost bench. Ash (average 10.5 percent) increases towards the top of the seam. (Fig 1)

  • (PDF) Pysical, Chemical Mineralogical Properties of Fly-ash

    Fly ash consists of inorganic, incombustible matter present in the coal that has been fused during combustion into a Limestoney, amorphous structure. Fly ash particles are generally spherical in shape...

  • Coal Gas Coal Mine Methane Coal Seam Methane

    Coal mine gas (firedamp) is a problematic phenomenon associated with coal mining, as the gas can form explosive mixtures together with air. The main component of the primary coal seam gas is methane in a concentration of 90-95 % the gas develops during the geochemical conversion of organic substances to coal (carbonisation).

  • Thermal Decomposition of Coal

    The amount of volatile products and their composition depends on coal type, coal size, and the conditions prevailing in the apparatus. Higher yield of tar and BTX is obtainable by using medium-rank bituminous heated at higher heating rate in the hydrogen-rich atmosphere.

  • CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION - COAL ANALYSIS

    chemical composition of the coal used in the study. These differences in compositions are attributed to the particle size of the coarse coal samples, which ranged from 13.2mm to 2.36mm, possibly producing heterogeneity that affected the sampling process.

  • On the Chemical Composition of Thermally Treated Coal-Tar ...

    The aim of this work is to study the changes in the chemical composition of a commercial impregnating coal-tar pitch due to the thermal treatment, using whole samples and the corresponding single isotropic phases and mesophases separated by hot filtration. A deeper knowledge of the molecular size and structure of the components present in the samples was achieved by means of size exclusion ...

  • Types and Composition of Coal - groundtruthtrekking.org

    Bituminous: This is the second rank of coal, softer and younger than anthracite, and containing a lower percentage of carbon (45-85%) and therefore more moisture and volatiles.Bituminous coal is not currently mined in Alaska, but the future Wishbone Hill Mine by Usibelli and the proposed Western Artic Coal Project by BHP Billiton would focus on this type of coal.

  • The Composition of Coalbed Gas

    establish relationship between the amount and composition of the gas in the coalbed and other factors. INTRODUCTION The existence of gas in coal and its release during mining has been common knowledge, probably since the beginning of coal mining. Until about

  • Original Research Mineralogical, Chemical, and Leaching ...

    chemical composition of all studied bottom ash samples is homogenous and SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 are the major components of samples and together with Fe 2 O 3 represent more than 70 wt. %. All ashes were thus classified as type F ashes. CaO and SO 3 concentrations are relatively low and reach up to 3.1 and 0.32 wt. %, respec-tively. The total concentrations of trace elements in the studied bottom ...

  • Chemical Properties and Petrographic Composition of Coal ...

    The properties of fly ash depend on numerous factors, such as the composition of feed coal, pulverizing and combustion conditions, and conditions of deposition of fly ash. It is difficult to evaluate the relationship between feed coal and fly ash because power plants commonly use blends of coals or coals and other materials (for example, tires or biomass) to fire their boilers.

  • Microstructure of Coal Gangue and Precipitation of Heavy ...

    Chemical composition of coal gangue (%). Table 2 shows that in the material composition of coal gangue, SiO 2 is the main component with high content, accounting for 59.9% and 53.7% of the fresh and weathered coal gangue, respectively. The secondary element is Al 2 O 3, accounting for 20.7% and 17.6% of fresh and weathered coal gangue, respectively. The contents of SiO 2, Al 2 O 3, and S in ...

  • COAL CHARACTERISTICS - Purdue University

    less than 1000 ppm [<0.1% of a rock’s composition] of zinc, copper, boron, lead, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, selenium) CCTR Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research 8 Each type of coal has a certain set of physical parameters which are mostly controlled by (a) moisture (b) volatile content (aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons) (c) carbon content COAL PHYSICAL PARAMETERS •Aliphatic ...

  • Anthracite Coal Characteristics and Applications

    2020-01-29  Anthracite coal, mined from the planet's oldest geological formations, has spent the longest time underground. The coal has been subjected to the most pressure and heat, making it the most compressed and hardest coal available. Hard coal contains greater potential to produce heat energy than softer, geologically "newer" coal.

  • Thermal Decomposition of Coal

    The amount of volatile products and their composition depends on coal type, coal size, and the conditions prevailing in the apparatus. Higher yield of tar and BTX is obtainable by using medium-rank bituminous heated at higher heating rate in the hydrogen-rich atmosphere. High yields of PCX and oxides are obtained from low-rank coal and/or in the hydrogen-poor atmosphere. 1. Introduction The ...

  • How Gasification Works HowStuffWorks

    This causes the coal to undergo different chemical reactions. First, partial oxidation of the coal's carbon releases heat that helps feed the gasification reactions. The first of these is pyrolysis, which occurs as coal's volatile matter degrades into several gases, leaving behind char, a charcoal-like substance.